Why does my SSD not issue 1MB IO’s?

First things First

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CDC9762-smd-drive.jpg
CDC 9762 SMD disk drive from 1974

Why do we tend to use 1MB IO sizes for throughput benchmarking?

To achieve the maximum throughput on a storage device, we will usually use a large IO size to maximize the amount of data is transferred per IO request. The idea is to make the ratio of data-transfers to IO requests as large as possible to reduce the CPU overhead of the actual IO request so we can get as close to the device bandwidth as possible. To take advantage of and pre-fetching, and to reduce the need for head movement in rotational devices, a sequential pattern is used.

For historical reasons, many storage testers will use a 1MB IO size for sequential testing. A typical fio command line might look like something this.

fio --name=read --bs=1m --direct=1 --filename=/dev/sda
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How to identify SSD types and measure performance.

Thomas Springer / CC0
Generic SSD Internal Layout

The real-world achievable SSD performance will vary depending on factors like IO size, queue depth and even CPU clock speed. It’s useful to know what the SSD is capable of delivering in the actual environment in which it’s used. I always start by looking at the performance claimed by the manufacturer. I use these figures to bound what is achievable. In other words, treat the manufacturer specs as “this device will go no faster than…”.


Identify SSD

Start by identifying the exact SSD type by using lsscsi. Note that the disks we are going to test are connected by ATA transport type, therefore the maximum queue depth that each device will support is 32.

# lsscsi 
[1:0:0:0] cd/dvd QEMU QEMU DVD-ROM 2.5+ /dev/sr0
[2:0:0:0] disk ATA SAMSUNG MZ7LM1T9 404Q /dev/sda
[2:0:1:0] disk ATA SAMSUNG MZ7LM1T9 404Q /dev/sdb
[2:0:2:0] disk ATA SAMSUNG MZ7LM1T9 404Q /dev/sdc
[2:0:3:0] disk ATA SAMSUNG MZ7LM1T9 404Q /dev/

The marketing name for these Samsung SSD’s is “SSD 850 EVO 2.5″ SATA III 1TB

Identify device specs

The spec sheet for this ssd claims the following performance characteristics.

Workload (Max)SpecMeasured
Sequential Read (QD=8)540 MB/s534
Sequential Write (QD=8)520 MB/s515
Read IOPS 4KB (QD=32)98,00080,00
Write IOPS 4KB (QD=32)90,00067,000
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Quick & Dirty Prometheus on OS-X

Install prometheus

  • Download the compiled prometheus binaries from prometheus.io
  • Unzip the binary and cd into the directory.
  • Run the prometheus binary, from the command line, it will listen on port 9090
$ cd /Users/gary.little/Downloads/prometheus-2.16.0-rc.0.darwin-amd64
$ ./prometheus
  • From a local browser, point to localhost:9090
prometheus web-ui

Add a collector/scraper to monitor the OS

Prometheus itself does not do much apart from monitor itself, to do anything useful we have to add a scraper/exporter module. The easiest thing to do is add the scraper to monitor OS-X itself. As in Linux the OS exporter is simply called “node exporter”.

Start by downloading the pre-compiled darwin node exporter from prometheus.io

  • Unzip the tar.gz
  • cd into the directory
  • run the node exporter
$ cd /Users/gary.little/Downloads/node_exporter-0.18.1.darwin-amd64
$ ./node_exporter
 INFO[0000] Starting node_exporter (version=0.18.1, branch=HEAD, revision=3db77732e925c08f675d7404a8c46466b2ece83e)  source="node_exporter.go:156"
 INFO[0000] Build context (go=go1.11.10, user=root@4a30727bb68c, date=20190604-16:47:36)  source="node_exporter.go:157"
 INFO[0000] Enabled collectors:                           source="node_exporter.go:97"
 INFO[0000]  - boottime                                   source="node_exporter.go:104"
 INFO[0000]  - cpu                                        source="node_exporter.go:104"
 INFO[0000]  - diskstats                                  source="node_exporter.go:104"
 INFO[0000]  - filesystem                                 source="node_exporter.go:104"
 INFO[0000]  - loadavg                                    source="node_exporter.go:104"
 INFO[0000]  - meminfo                                    source="node_exporter.go:104"
 INFO[0000]  - netdev                                     source="node_exporter.go:104"
 INFO[0000]  - textfile                                   source="node_exporter.go:104"
 INFO[0000]  - time                                       source="node_exporter.go:104"
 INFO[0000] Listening on :9100                            source="node_exporter.go:170""
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